If a particle moves from one point to another, we might need to know how fast it moves. We can define two quantities that deal with "how fast": average velocity and instantaneous velocity. However, here we must consider these quantities as vectors and use vector notation.

If a particle moves through a displacement
$\overrightarrow{r}$ in a time interval Δ t,
then its *average velocity*
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$
is

$\text{average velocity}=\frac{\text{displacement}}{\text{time interval}}$

or ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}=\frac{\Delta \overrightarrow{v}}{\Delta t}$ (4-8)

This tells us that the direction of ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$ (the vector on the left side of Eq. 4-8) must be the same as that of the displacement $\Delta \overrightarrow{r}$ (the vector on the right side). Using Eq. 4-4, we can write Eq. 4-8 in vector components as

```
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}=\frac{\Delta x\hat{i}+\Delta y\hat{j}+\Delta z\hat{k}}{\Delta t}=\frac{\Delta x}{\Delta t}\hat{i}+\frac{\Delta y}{\Delta t}\hat{j}+\frac{\Delta z}{\Delta t}\hat{k}$
(4-9)
```

For example, if a particle moves through displacement (12 m)$\hat{i}$+ (3.0 m)$\hat{k}$ in 2.0 s, then its average velocity during that move is

```
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}=\frac{\Delta \overrightarrow{v}}{\Delta t}=\frac{\left(12m\right)\hat{i}+\left(3.0m\right)\hat{k}}{2.0s}=(6.0m/s)\hat{i}+(1.5m/s)\hat{k}$
```

That is, the average velocity (a vector quantity) has a component of 6.0 m/s along the x axis and a component of 1.5 m/s along the z axis.

When we speak of the *velocity* of a particle, we usually mean the particle's
*instantaneous velocity*
$\overrightarrow{v}$ at some instant. This
$\overrightarrow{v}$ is the value that
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$
approaches in the limit as we shrink the time interval Δt to 0 about that instant.
Using the language of calculus, we may write
$\overrightarrow{v}$ as the derivative

${\overrightarrow{v}}_{}=\frac{d\overrightarrow{r}}{dt}$ (4-10)

**Figure 4-3** The displacement
$\Delta \overrightarrow{r}$
of a particle during a time interval
$\Delta \stackrel{}{t}$, from position 1 with position vector
${\overrightarrow{r}}_{1}$
at time t_{1} to position 2 with position vector
${\overrightarrow{r}}_{2}$
at time t_{2}. The tangent to the particle's path at position 1 is shown.

Figure 4-3 shows the path of a particle that is restricted to the xy plane. As the particle travels to the right along the curve, its position vector sweeps to the right. During time interval Δt, the position vector changes from ${\overrightarrow{r}}_{1}\text{to}{\overrightarrow{r}}_{2}$ and the particle's displacement is Δr.

To find the instantaneous velocity of the particle at, say, instant t_{1}
(when the particle is at position 1), we shrink interval Δt to 0 about t_{1}.
Three things happen as we do so. (1) Position vector
${\overrightarrow{r}}_{2}$
in Fig. 4-3 moves toward
${\overrightarrow{r}}_{1}$
so that Δr shrinks toward zero. (2) The direction of
$\frac{\Delta \overrightarrow{r}}{\Delta t}$
(and thus of
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$ )
approaches the
direction of the line tangent to the particle's path at position 1. (3) The average velocity
${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$
approaches the instantaneous velocity
$\overrightarrow{v}$ at t_{1.}

In the limit as $\Delta t\to 0$, we have ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{\mathrm{avg}}$ and, most important here, takes on the direction of the tangent line.Thus, $\overrightarrow{v}$ has that direction as well:

The direction of the instantaneous velocity $\overrightarrow{v}$ of a particle is always tangent to the particle's path at the particle's position.

The result is the same in three dimensions: $\overrightarrow{v}$ is always tangent to the particle's path. To write Eq. 4-10 in unit-vector form, we substitute for $\overrightarrow{r}$ from Eq. 4-1:

$\overrightarrow{v}=\frac{d}{dt}(x\hat{i}+y\hat{j}+z\hat{k})=\frac{dx}{dt}\hat{i}+\frac{dy}{dt}\hat{j}+\frac{dz}{dt}\hat{k}$

This equation can be simplified somewhat by writing it as

$\overrightarrow{v}={v}_{x}\hat{i}+{v}_{y}\hat{j}+{v}_{z}\hat{k}$ (4-11)

where the scalar components of $\overrightarrow{v}$ are

${V}_{x}=\frac{dx}{dt}\text{,}{V}_{y}=\frac{dy}{dt}\text{, and}{V}_{z}=\frac{dz}{dt}$ (4-12)

For example, dx/dt is the scalar component of $\overrightarrow{v}$ along the x axis. Thus, we can find the scalar components of $\overrightarrow{v}$ by differentiating the scalar components of $\overrightarrow{r}$.

**Figure 4-4** The velocity
$\overrightarrow{v}$
of a particle, along with the scalar components of
$\overrightarrow{v}$

Figure 4-4 shows a velocity vector
$\overrightarrow{v}$
and its scalar *x* and *y* components. Note that
$\overrightarrow{v}$
is tangent to the particle's path at the particle's position. *Caution:*
When a position vector is drawn, as in Figs4-3, it is an arrow that extends
from one point (a "here") to another point (a "there"). However, when a
velocity vector is drawn, as in Fig. 4-4, it does not extend from one
point to another. Rather, it shows the instantaneous direction of travel of
a particle at the tail, and its length (representing the velocity magnitude)
can be drawn to any scale.

**About the Authors**

David Halliday was an American physicist known for his physics textbooks, *Physics and
Fundamentals of Physics*, which he wrote with Robert Resnick. Both textbooks have
been in continuous use since 1960 and are available in more than 47 languages.

Robert Resnick was a physics educator and author of physics textbooks. He was born in Baltimore, Maryland on January 11, 1923 and graduated from the Baltimore City College high school in 1939. He received his B.A. in 1943 and his Ph.D. in 1949, both in physics from Johns Hopkins University.

The 10th edition of Halliday's Fundamentals of Physics, Extended building upon previous issues by offering several new features and additions. The new edition offers most accurate, extensive and varied set of assessment questions of any course management program in addition to all questions including some form of question assistance including answer specific feedback to facilitate success. The text also offers multimedia presentations (videos and animations) of much of the material that provide an alternative pathway through the material for those who struggle with reading scientific exposition.

Furthermore, the book includes math review content in both a self-study module for more in-depth review and also in just-in-time math videos for a quick refresher on a specific topic. The Halliday content is widely accepted as clear, correct, and complete. The end-of-chapters problems are without peer. The new design, which was introduced in 9e continues with 10e, making this new edition of Halliday the most accessible and reader-friendly book on the market.

A Reader says,"As many reviewers have noted, this is a great physics book used widely in university technical programs as a first course in technical physics, with calculus. I find it is the one book I start with when trying to understand physical concepts at a useful but basic level. It has broad coverage and is well written . To go beyond this book requires specialized books on each topic of interest (electromagnetics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.)."

Reader Frank says, "The treatment is sound, thorough, and clear. I've owned the early editions of Halliday and Resnick for years. I'm very happy that I updated my library with this 10th edition. The topics are covered in a very logical order. The study features and worked examples are outstanding. Don't hesitate to buy this book! Reading it is awesome on the Kindle app on the iPad."

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