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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

Inductors in Series and Parallel
Inductances in series add like resistances in series. The total value is the sum of the individual values. Inductances in parallel values add up like the values of resistors in parallel. The reciprocal of total inductance is the sum of reciprocals of all the individual inductances. More ...

Operational Amplifier
An operational amplifier (op amp) is an amplifier circuit with a differential input, in other words it amplifies the voltage difference between its two inputs. The open-loop gain of an op amp is typically very large so normally, it's configured with negative feedback to reduce the gain. More ...

Transformers
Transformers work according to the principle of electromagnetic induction. If the first coil carries sine-wave ac of a certain frequency, then the induced current will be sine-wave ac of the same frequency in the second coil. More ...

Phase shift in AC Circuits
In an AC circuit with a capacitor or an inductor there is a phase shift between voltage and current. In this article you learn how to calculate the amount of that phase shift. More ...

Common Emitter Configuration Transistor Biasing
To design a common emitter amplifier circuit, use a voltage divider with resistors selected to set the base voltage at the center of the transistor's linear region. Then, through a DC blocking capacitor, apply a waveform to the transistor's base. More ...

Electromagnetic Devices
Electromagnetic devices work based on the relationship between electrical current and a magnetic field. They are used to control valves, cooling and heating systems, relays, and electric motors. More ...

Inductor Mutual Inductance and Coefficient of Coupling
Mutual Inductance the property of a coil in which it opposes the change of current in another coil. The coefficient of coupling between two coils is the fraction of magnetic flux produced by the current in one coil that links with the other coil. More ...

Leonardo Da Vinci - Leonardo's Animals
Leonardo da Vinci had a great love for animals. He was a vegetarian. He wrote, 'The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look on the murder of men.' More ...

Understand E = mc^2
E = mc^2 has become one of the most famous equations in the world. Even people with no background in physics have at least heard of the equation. However, most people do not know what the equation means. More ...

Direct Current
The nucleus of an atom is relatively heavy, so electricity primarily involves the flow of electrons. The nucleus of an atom generally doesn't move much. More ...

Electronics Lab
Even though an electronic circuit may appear to work on paper, and maybe even in a circuit simulator, it's always important to test it in the real world. Prototype circuits can be built using a solderless breadboard. More ...

What Is an Electronic Circuit?
Circuits provide a path for current to flow. To be a circuit, this path must start and end at the same point. In other words, a circuit must form a loop. More ...

Alternating Current
With DC (Direct Current), electric current flows in only one direction. With AC (Alternating Current), current direction reverses periodically. More ...

Lead-Acid Battery Chemistry
As a lead-acid battery is repeatedly recharged, sulfation will build-up on the plates and the battery will begin to loose its capacity to restore to a full charge and eventually must be replaced. More ...


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