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Electronics

Transformers
Transformers work according to the principle of electromagnetic induction. If the first coil carries sine-wave ac of a certain frequency, then the induced current will be sine-wave ac of the same frequency in the second coil. More ...

Modern Semiconductor Manufacturing
The modern semiconductor manufacturing process sequence is the most sophisticated and unforgiving volume production technology that has ever been practiced successfully. It consists of a complex series of hundreds of unit process steps that must be performed very nearly flawlessly. More ...

Common Emitter Configuration Transistor Biasing
To design a common emitter amplifier circuit, use a voltage divider with resistors selected to set the base voltage at the center of the transistor's linear region. Then, through a DC blocking capacitor, apply a waveform to the transistor's base. More ...

Circuit Analysis with Thevenin's theorem
Thevenins theorem states that Any linear electronic network containing only voltage sources, current sources and resistances can be replaced by an equivalent combination of a voltage source in a series connection with a resistance. More ...

Use a Resistor to Measure Inductance
Inductance is usually measured by using an LCM multimeter. It can also be mesured using a resistor. With the resistor method, you adjust the frequency of a sine wave until the AC voltage accross the resistor and inductor are equal. Then using a formula to calculate the inductance. More ...

Basic Laws and Analytical Methods for Circuit Analysis
Circuit analysis is like the psychoanalysis of the electrical engineering world because it‚?Ts all about studying the behavior of circuits. With any circuit, you have an input signal, such as a battery source or an audio signal. What you want to figure out is the circuit‚?Ts output ‚?" how the circuit responds to a given input. More ...

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
A Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is a 4-layer diode that is controlled by a gate signal. It ca be turned on by a pulse on the gate. More ...

RMS Used in AC Circuit Analysis
Because the value of an AC signal is continuously varying, it would be difficult to use formulas such as ohms law. In the specific case of a sine wave, the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the wave is used instead. More ...

The Diode
A diode is a semiconductor component designed to allow current to pass in one direction. To form a diode, a P type semiconductor is joined with an N type of the same semiconductor element, forming a P-N junction. Diodes are used for turning AC to DC, isolating signals, and mixing signals. More ...

Inductors in Series and Parallel
With inductors connected in series, the total inductance is the sum of the inductances of the individual inductors With inductors in parallel, the reciprocal of the equivalent inductance is the sum of the reciprocals of the inductors connected in parallel. More ...

Planar Integrated Circuit Fabrication
The key unit process steps in IC fabrication, include oxidation, photolithography, etching, ion implantation, and metallization. Here, we describe the oxidation steps. More ...

Inductors in Series and Parallel
Inductances in series add like resistances in series. The total value is the sum of the individual values. Inductances in parallel values add up like the values of resistors in parallel. The reciprocal of total inductance is the sum of reciprocals of all the individual inductances. More ...

Bipolar Transistors
Transistors are semiconductor devices used to amplify or switch electronic signals. Transistors are one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics. There are basically two types of transistors, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) and Field Effect Transistors (FET). More ...

Transforming Sources for Circuit Analysis
Kirchhoff's laws and Ohm's laws can get pretty laborious when you're analyzing complex circuits. Through a transformation technique, you modify a complex circuit so that in the transformed circuit, the devices are all connected in series or in parallel. After the transformation, you no longer need to systematically apply Kirchhoff's laws. More ...

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