Part 1: Capabilities and Hardware
These days it isn’t uncommon for a home to have multiple personal computers, and as
such, it just makes sense for them to be able to share files, as well as to share one
Internet connection. Wired networking is an option, but it is one that may require the
installation and management of a great deal of wiring in order to get even a modestly
sized home set up. With wireless networking equipment becoming extremely affordable and
easy to install, it may be worth considering by those looking to build a home network, as
well as by those looking to expand on an existing wired network.
The first installment in this two-part series of Tech Tips will provide an introduction
to the basic capabilities and hardware involved in wireless networking. Once that
foundation has been established, we’ll take a look at a few setup and security related
considerations that should be addressed once the physical installation is complete.
The basic standard that covers wireless networking is the Institute for Electrical and
Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) 802.11, which is close kin to the wired Ethernet standard,
802.3. Many people will recognize 802.11 more readily when accompanied by one of three
suffixes (a, b, or g), used to specify the exact protocol of wireless networking.
The 802.11a protocol first hit the scene in 2001, and despite a small surge in recent
popularity, it is definitely the least common of the three at this time. The signals are
transmitted on a 5 GHz radio frequency, while “b” and “g” travel on 2.4 GHz. The higher
frequency means that the signal can travel less distance in free space and has a harder
time penetrating walls, thus making the practical application of an 802.11a network a bit
limited. The maximum transfer rate, however, is roughly 54 Mbps, so it makes up for its
limited range with respectable speed.
As mentioned, 802.11b and 802.11g networks operate on a 2.4 GHz radio band, which gives
a much greater range as compared to 802.11a. One downside to being on the 2.4 GHz band is
that many devices share it, and interference is bound to be an issue. Cordless phones and
Bluetooth devices are two of many items that operate at this frequency. The range of these
two protocols is about 300 feet in free air, and the difference between the two comes down
to speed. 802.11b came first, released back in 1999, and offers speeds up to 11 Mbps.
802.11g first appeared in 2002 and it is a backwards compatible improvement over 802.11b
and offers speeds up to 54 Mbps.
On top of these protocols, some manufacturers have improved upon the 802.11g standard
and can provide speeds of up to 108 Mbps. This doesn’t involve a separate protocol, but
just a bit of tweaking in areas like better data compression, more efficient data packet
bursting, and by using two radio channels simultaneously. Typically, stock 802.11g
equipment is not capable of these speeds, and those interested need to shop for matched
components that specify 108 Mbps support.