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Computer Networking Topologies and Media

Network Interface Cards (NIC)
Every entity on a network, a PC, printer, router, etc., that needs to communicate with other devices must have a NIC if it is to communicate over the network. NIC functionality is now often integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented with a dedicated Ethernet chip on the motherboard. More ...

Network Topologies
The physical arrangement of the cables, computers and components is referred to as the networks topology. There are five basic topologies, bus, star, ring, mesh, and wireless. More ...

Trunking, Bonding, Aggregation; What Does it Mean?
Each port on a network switch would be connected to one network device, such as a computer. But to connect a server you need higher bandwidth. For this purpose you could combine multiple Ethernet channels into one. More ...

Understanding Basic Terms in Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Installation
Fiber optic cables are exposed to electrical, mechanical, chemical and environmental elements, so proper installation is critical for the long-term stability and survival of fiber cables. Cable installation must also meet the NEC (National Electric Code) and local building codes. More ...

Computer Network Routers, Hubs, and Switches
The most common components on a computer network, not counting cables, are "routers", "hubs", and "switches". Many of these modules can be appear similar and there can be significant overlap in roles. This article explains the difference between these important network components. More ...

The Secret of Maintaining Your Fiber Optic Network
During fiber optic network installation, maintenance, or restoration, it is also often necessary to identify a specific fiber without disrupting live service. This battery powered instrument looks like a long handheld bar and is called fiber identifier or live fiber identifier. More ...

Wireless Network Vlans - How to Implement Wireless Vlans
Wireless access points operate as bridges with no routing defined anywhere on the wireless network segment. VLANs are defined on the wired switches and mapped with specific SSIDs at each access point. The wireless client associates with a specific SSID which in turn will map client with membership in a specific VLAN. More ...

Overview of IEEE 802.11 Wireless Lan Technology
Wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless broadband technology that utilizes radio frequency (RF) to transmit and receive data through the air There are two competing RF technologies in the use of Wireless LAN, the IEEE 802.11 standard and proprietary technologies. Both fall under wireless broadband technology. More ...

Wireless Networking
If a home has multiple computers, it makes sense for them to share files and an Internet connection. This two-part article will provide an introduction to the basic hardware and security related considerations involved in wireless networking. More ...

Hubs, Switches and Routers - What's the Difference?
The terms "hub", "switch", and "router" are often used interchangeably and - in fact, the devices are quite different. Hubs are used to simply interconnect individual computers. Switches do the same more efficiently. However, routers interconnect different networks (as opposed to individual machines). More ...

Understanding the Basics of All-Optical Switching
All-optical switching is a process by which light in the form of digital communication signals is routed from one transmission channel to another without intermediate conversion to another format. More ...

Frame Relay WAN Protocol
Frame Relay is WAN protocol and operates for LAN internetworking at data link layers. It is a packet-switched technology designed for swift digital transmission of data. Data integrity is not guaranteed and packets are discarded during network congestion. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Circulators?
An optical circulator is an nonreciprocal passive device that directs light sequentially from port to port in only one direction. The operation of a circulator is similar to that of an isolator except its constructions is more complex. More ...