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Computer Networking Topologies and Media

Beginners Guide to Fiber Optic Bit Error Ratio (BER) Measurement
Bit error ratio (BER) measurement is the fundamental measurement of the quality of the fiber optic communication system. It measures the system's probability that transmitted bits will be correctly received as logic ones and zeros. More ...

Troubleshooting Your Optical Fiber Networks - Introduction to OTDR
In fiber optic networks, OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is an opto-electronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber's length and overall attenuation, including splice and mated-connector losses. It may also be used to locate faults, such as breaks. More ...

Understanding Optical Fiber Types
Two major types of optical fibers exist for communication systems: multimode and single mode. Multimode fiber can carry many modes of light rays, while single mode fiber can only carry one mode of light ray. More ...

Understanding Basic Terms in Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Installation
Fiber optic cables are exposed to electrical, mechanical, chemical and environmental elements, so proper installation is critical for the long-term stability and survival of fiber cables. Cable installation must also meet the NEC (National Electric Code) and local building codes. More ...

Wireless or Wired Network?
Do you want the freedom of a wireless network, or do you want the security and reliability of a wired network? Both networks can provide you with great service and expandability, but each one varies in size, reliability, cost and speed. More ...

Computer Networking Devices
Computer networking devices, also known as networking hardware or network equipment are components connected to the network by network media. This article describes the function of the hub, bridge, switch, router, gateway, multilayer switch, and brouter. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Circulators?
An optical circulator is an nonreciprocal passive device that directs light sequentially from port to port in only one direction. The operation of a circulator is similar to that of an isolator except its constructions is more complex. More ...

Cisco Switching Fundamentals
Newer switches now use ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for high speed hardware switching of packets. This results in much faster performance than packets processed in software. More ...

What Are Pseudo-Wires?
Pseudo-wire is a mechanism used in networking and telecommunications to emulate various services using packet switched networks with technologies such as Ethernet, MPLS (Multi Protocol Labelled Switching) and IP (Internet Protocol). More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Attenuators?
A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates the loss the would be caused by a long length of fiber. For a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. More ...

Cable: Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6A ; What's the Difference?
This article describes the different twisted pair cable types, Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6A, their construction and application. More ...

Overview of IEEE 802.11 Wireless Lan Technology
Wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless broadband technology that utilizes radio frequency (RF) to transmit and receive data through the air There are two competing RF technologies in the use of Wireless LAN, the IEEE 802.11 standard and proprietary technologies. Both fall under wireless broadband technology. More ...

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Basics
"A VLAN is a LOGICAL network where devices might be on separate PHYSICAL networks. The purpose of implementing a VLAN is to improve the performance of a network or apply security features. More ...