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Computer Networking Topologies and Media

Computer Networking Devices
Computer networking devices, also known as networking hardware or network equipment are components connected to the network by network media. This article describes the function of the hub, bridge, switch, router, gateway, multilayer switch, and brouter. More ...

Network Interface Cards (NIC)
Every entity on a network, a PC, printer, router, etc., that needs to communicate with other devices must have a NIC if it is to communicate over the network. NIC functionality is now often integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented with a dedicated Ethernet chip on the motherboard. More ...

What is an Ethernet Bridge?
Bridges are used to divide larger networks into smaller sections. A bridge reads a frame's MAC address, and decides to either forward or filte the frame from crossing the bridge to the other part of the network. More ...

Wireless Networking
If a home has multiple computers, it makes sense for them to share files and an Internet connection. This two-part article will provide an introduction to the basic hardware and security related considerations involved in wireless networking. More ...

Distance Vector vs. Link State vs. Hybrid Routing
Routers direct traffic between networks or subnetworks to transport a packet to its destination. Distance Vector routing uses the hop count as its routing metric. Link State routing use statistics like distance, link speed, and traffic to calculate the cost of different routes through the Internet. More ...

Wireless Network Vlans - How to Implement Wireless Vlans
Wireless access points operate as bridges with no routing defined anywhere on the wireless network segment. VLANs are defined on the wired switches and mapped with specific SSIDs at each access point. The wireless client associates with a specific SSID which in turn will map client with membership in a specific VLAN. More ...

Troubleshooting Your Optical Fiber Networks - Introduction to OTDR
In fiber optic networks, OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is an opto-electronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber's length and overall attenuation, including splice and mated-connector losses. It may also be used to locate faults, such as breaks. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Attenuators?
A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates the loss the would be caused by a long length of fiber. For a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. More ...

Routing Technologies, Bandwidth Management and Traffic Shaping
Bandwidth is the overshadowing issue for most network quality problems. The response to that problem is often to add more bandwidth. However, more bandwidth often comes at a relativel high cost. More ...

Ethernet Network
In 1973 Xerox invented Ethernet to solve the problem of transferring data between computers. In the early 1980s Xerox turned over control of the Standard to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The IEEE subcommittee 802.3 sets the standard for Ethernet. More ...

MPO Connector, MTP Connector, What's the Difference?
MPO stands for Multi-fibre Push On and is a fiber optic connector type. MTP is a registered trademark of US Conec. The MTP design complies with the MPO standard. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Circulators?
An optical circulator is an nonreciprocal passive device that directs light sequentially from port to port in only one direction. The operation of a circulator is similar to that of an isolator except its constructions is more complex. More ...

Network Broadcast Storms
When a switch receives a broadcast frame the switch floods the frame out all switch ports other than the port on which the frame was received. Because a layer 2 frame does not have a TTL (Time to live) field, a broadcast frame endlessly circulates through the Layer 2 topology. More ...


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