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Computer Networking Technologies and Media

Understanding the Basics of All-Optical Switching
All-optical switching is a process by which light in the form of digital communication signals is routed from one transmission channel to another without intermediate conversion to another format. More ...

Hubs, Switches and Routers - What's the Difference?
The terms "hub", "switch", and "router" are often used interchangeably and - in fact, the devices are quite different. Hubs are used to simply interconnect individual computers. Switches do the same more efficiently. However, routers interconnect different networks (as opposed to individual machines). More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Attenuators?
A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates the loss the would be caused by a long length of fiber. For a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. More ...

What is FTTP, FTTH, FTTB, and FTTD?
Some FTTx such as FTTN (fiber to the node), FTTC (fiber to the curb) depend on copper wires for final connection to the customers premises which contrasts with FTTP. FTTP can be further categorized into FTTH (fiber to the home), FTTB (fiber to the building), etc. More ...

Wireless Networking Infrastructure Mode
In Ad Hoc mode devices make wireless connections directly between computers, Infrastructure mode wireless devices use access points (WAPs), switches, and routers to connect. More ...

The Secret of Maintaining Your Fiber Optic Network
During fiber optic network installation, maintenance, or restoration, it is also often necessary to identify a specific fiber without disrupting live service. This battery powered instrument looks like a long handheld bar and is called fiber identifier or live fiber identifier. More ...

Cisco Switching Fundamentals
Newer switches now use ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for high speed hardware switching of packets. This results in much faster performance than packets processed in software. More ...

Network Interface Cards (NIC)
Every entity on a network, a PC, printer, router, etc., that needs to communicate with other devices must have a NIC if it is to communicate over the network. NIC functionality is now often integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented with a dedicated Ethernet chip on the motherboard. More ...

How to Choose the Proper Fiber Optic Connector for Your FTTH (Fiber To The Home) Installation
Fiber optic connectors can be divided into three groups: simplex, duplex and multiple fiber connectors. Simplex connector means only one fiber is terminated in the connector. Duplex connector means two fibers are terminated in the connector. More ...

Distance Vector vs. Link State vs. Hybrid Routing
Routers direct traffic between networks or subnetworks to transport a packet to its destination. Distance Vector routing uses the hop count as its routing metric. Link State routing use statistics like distance, link speed, and traffic to calculate the cost of different routes through the Internet. More ...

Wireless Network Vlans - How to Implement Wireless Vlans
Wireless access points operate as bridges with no routing defined anywhere on the wireless network segment. VLANs are defined on the wired switches and mapped with specific SSIDs at each access point. The wireless client associates with a specific SSID which in turn will map client with membership in a specific VLAN. More ...

Computer Network Routers, Hubs, and Switches
The most common components on a computer network, not counting cables, are "routers", "hubs", and "switches". Many of these modules can be appear similar and there can be significant overlap in roles. This article explains the difference between these important network components. More ...

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