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Computer Networking Topologies and Media

Routing Technologies, Bandwidth Management and Traffic Shaping
Bandwidth is the overshadowing issue for most network quality problems. The response to that problem is often to add more bandwidth. However, more bandwidth often comes at a relativel high cost. More ...

What is an Ethernet Bridge?
Bridges are used to divide larger networks into smaller sections. A bridge reads a frame's MAC address, and decides to either forward or filte the frame from crossing the bridge to the other part of the network. More ...

Computer Network Routers, Hubs, and Switches
The most common components on a computer network, not counting cables, are "routers", "hubs", and "switches". Many of these modules can be appear similar and there can be significant overlap in roles. This article explains the difference between these important network components. More ...

Wireless Networks
A wireless LAN (WLAN or WiFi) provides network connectivity by using radio waves rather than cable. Wireless devices can communicate with each other or they can communicate through a wireless access point (WAP) to a wired network. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Circulators?
An optical circulator is an nonreciprocal passive device that directs light sequentially from port to port in only one direction. The operation of a circulator is similar to that of an isolator except its constructions is more complex. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Isolators?
Light can be reflected back and forth. In fiber optic networks, the reflections are harmful to the system. That's where fiber optic isolator comes to play. Optical isolators stop back-reflection. More ...

An introduction to Linux Network Routing
Routing is where routers select the paths for packets to travel from their source to their destination. The process performed by a router directs forwarding by the use of of routing tables. More ...

The Secret of Maintaining Your Fiber Optic Network
During fiber optic network installation, maintenance, or restoration, it is also often necessary to identify a specific fiber without disrupting live service. This battery powered instrument looks like a long handheld bar and is called fiber identifier or live fiber identifier. More ...

How to Set up a Private Network
A private network is one which does not connect directly to the internet, but does allow you to connect to other computers that are on the same physical network. More ...

A Guide to Broadband Internet Connections
By this point, most of America already has a Broadband Connection to the Internet. But for those that have not yet taken the plunge, a world of benefits awaits you. Broadband can get you surfing up to 50 times faster than a typical 56K modem. More ...

Ethernet Bridges
Unlike a hub, which blindly forwards received bits, a bridge makes intelligent forwarding decisions based on the destination MAC address in a frame. More ...

Beginners Guide to Fiber Optic Bit Error Ratio (BER) Measurement
Bit error ratio (BER) measurement is the fundamental measurement of the quality of the fiber optic communication system. It measures the system's probability that transmitted bits will be correctly received as logic ones and zeros. More ...

Introduction to SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking)
SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) standards were developed to take advantage of low-cost transmission over optical fibers. It defines a hierarchy of data rates, formats and optical signal specifications. More ...


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