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Computer Networking Topologies and Media

What are OFNP, OFNR, OFNG and OFCG? Understanding Fiber Optic Cable Fire Ratings
Just like copper cables, NEC (National Electrical Code) requires indoor fiber optic cables be marked with their fire and smoking ratings. According to NEC, a building's inside area is divided into three types of sections: plenums, risers and general purpose areas. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Circulators?
An optical circulator is an nonreciprocal passive device that directs light sequentially from port to port in only one direction. The operation of a circulator is similar to that of an isolator except its constructions is more complex. More ...

What is an Ethernet Bridge?
Bridges are used to divide larger networks into smaller sections. A bridge reads a frame's MAC address, and decides to either forward or filte the frame from crossing the bridge to the other part of the network. More ...

The IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Standards
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The IEEE sets up committees to define industry standards. The IEEE 802 committee sets the standards for networking. The IEEE subcommittee 802.3 sets the standard for Ethernet. More ...

Multilayer Switch
A network switch operates at layer 2 the OSI model. A multilayer switch also works at layer 3 or higher, all the way up to layer 6 of the OSI model. More ...

Wireless or Wired Network?
Do you want the freedom of a wireless network, or do you want the security and reliability of a wired network? Both networks can provide you with great service and expandability, but each one varies in size, reliability, cost and speed. More ...

Computer Networking Devices
Computer networking devices, also known as networking hardware or network equipment are components connected to the network by network media. This article describes the function of the hub, bridge, switch, router, gateway, multilayer switch, and brouter. More ...

Cisco Switching Fundamentals
Newer switches now use ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for high speed hardware switching of packets. This results in much faster performance than packets processed in software. More ...

Understanding Basic Terms in Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Installation
Fiber optic cables are exposed to electrical, mechanical, chemical and environmental elements, so proper installation is critical for the long-term stability and survival of fiber cables. Cable installation must also meet the NEC (National Electric Code) and local building codes. More ...

Static Versus Dynamic Routing
Routers direct traffic between networks or subnetworks. With static routing a network administrator manually creates the router's routing table. With dynamic routing the router learn about networks use routing protocols like RIP, RIP2, EIGRP, OSPF, or BGP. More ...

LAN Network Protocols - Ethernet, STP, Fiber
Spanning Tree is an algorithm that runs on Layer 2 campus switches for preventing Layer 2 loops and broadcast storms on a network with at least 2 switches or bridges. The algorithm determines what ports at each switch or bridge must be blocked to create a loop free topology. More ...

Introduction to ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Networks
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a network technology to provide broadband services for the transmission of voice, video, and data at speeds up to 1Gbps. More ...

How Do Fiber Optic Couplers Work and How are They Made?
Fiber optic couplers are needed for tapping (monitoring the signal quality) or more complex telecommunication systems which require more than simple point-to-point connections, such as ring architectures, bus architectures and star architectures. More ...