Menu
Computer Networking Topologies and Media

What is an Ethernet Switch?
An Ethernet switch is a networking device that is able to interrogate the data within the Ethernet Frames to provide forwarding and filtering and loop avoidance. More ...

What Are Pseudo-Wires?
Pseudo-wire is a mechanism used in networking and telecommunications to emulate various services using packet switched networks with technologies such as Ethernet, MPLS (Multi Protocol Labelled Switching) and IP (Internet Protocol). More ...

What is an Ethernet Bridge?
Bridges are used to divide larger networks into smaller sections. A bridge reads a frame's MAC address, and decides to either forward or filte the frame from crossing the bridge to the other part of the network. More ...

Build Your Own Fiber Optic Network Like a Professional Network Engineer
The basic philosophy of modern LAN wiring is the concept of structured cabling. The entire networking system is broken up into chunks that allow workstation wires to be concentrated. More ...

Beginners Guide to Fiber Optic Bit Error Ratio (BER) Measurement
Bit error ratio (BER) measurement is the fundamental measurement of the quality of the fiber optic communication system. It measures the system's probability that transmitted bits will be correctly received as logic ones and zeros. More ...

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Basics
"A VLAN is a LOGICAL network where devices might be on separate PHYSICAL networks. The purpose of implementing a VLAN is to improve the performance of a network or apply security features. More ...

Cisco Switching Fundamentals
Newer switches now use ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for high speed hardware switching of packets. This results in much faster performance than packets processed in software. More ...

Understanding Basic Terms in Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Installation
Fiber optic cables are exposed to electrical, mechanical, chemical and environmental elements, so proper installation is critical for the long-term stability and survival of fiber cables. Cable installation must also meet the NEC (National Electric Code) and local building codes. More ...

What Are Fiber Optic Attenuators?
A fiber optic attenuator, also called an optical attenuator, simulates the loss the would be caused by a long length of fiber. For a fiber optic receiver, too much light can overload it and degrade the bit error ratio. More ...

The Secret of Maintaining Your Fiber Optic Network
During fiber optic network installation, maintenance, or restoration, it is also often necessary to identify a specific fiber without disrupting live service. This battery powered instrument looks like a long handheld bar and is called fiber identifier or live fiber identifier. More ...

Wireless Networks
A wireless LAN (WLAN or WiFi) provides network connectivity by using radio waves rather than cable. Wireless devices can communicate with each other or they can communicate through a wireless access point (WAP) to a wired network. More ...

Introduction to SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking)
SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) standards were developed to take advantage of low-cost transmission over optical fibers. It defines a hierarchy of data rates, formats and optical signal specifications. More ...

Troubleshooting Your Optical Fiber Networks - Introduction to OTDR
In fiber optic networks, OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is an opto-electronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber's length and overall attenuation, including splice and mated-connector losses. It may also be used to locate faults, such as breaks. More ...