Menu
Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Classless IP Addressing
In the beginning, classful addressing was a great idea for keeping IP addresses organized. But as the Internet grew, and IP addresses became scarce, classful addressing was found to be too limiting. Classless IP addressing, known as Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) was released in September 1993. More ...

The OSI Network Layer
The Network layer (OSI layer 3) uses routable protocols to deliver data packets to networks connected through routers. Routing is the process of moving data packets from one network or network segment to another. More ...

IPv4 Datagram Fields
If you are pursuing CompTIA Network+ certification, of if you're involved in network troubleshooting, it's important to understand the construction of an IP datagram. More ...

Major Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite
This is a chart of the layers of the TCP/IP Suite and the major protocols in each layer. As you move your mouse pointer over each protocol acronym, a brief description of the protocol appears. This is not a comprehensive list. More ...

Video - Network Layer (Layer 3) of OSI Networking Model
In this video by Kevin Wallace you learn about the Network Layer of the OSI networking model. More ...

Introducing OpenStack
OpenStack is one of the most popular cloud computing management packages. OpenStack provides a common platform for controlling clouds of servers, storage, network, and even application resources. OpenStack is managed through a web-based interface, a command-line interface (CLI), and an application programming interface (API). More ...

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)
A VLAN (Virtual LAN) allows a network administrator to partition a LAN to conform to the business functions of the organization without physically modifying the network. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that allows an administrator to configure VLANs on a single VTP server, easing the administration of a network. More ...

Internet Security and VPN Network Design
This article discusses some essential technical concepts associated with a VPN. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) integrates remote employees, company offices, and business partners using the Internet and secures encrypted tunnels between locations. More ...

The OSI Presentation Layer
At this layer applications communicate on a format for exchanging data. The Session layer provides character set conversion and formats the data. It performs encryption and decryption, compression and decompression. More ...

Ports and Sockets
Data transmitted over the Internet carries a 32-bit IP address that identifies its destination computer and a 16-bit number that identifies a port on that computer. The combination of the IP address and the port number is called a socket. A pair of sockets, one on the sending computer and one on the receiving computer uniquely identifies a specific connection on the Internet. More ...

A Simple Description of the IPv6 Header and Datagram
This article provides a simple description of the IPv6 header and datagram without a lot referring back to IPv4. More ...

Basic TCP/IP Networking
In this article, I'm going to describe how a network works. I am NOT not going to load you down with details. Instead, I'm just going to describe what happens when you start your client computer. How it gets access to the network. More ...

IPv6 Address Auto Configuration
When an IPv6 device first connects to a network, it can configure its own IPv6 address. It does this using a mechanism called MAC-to-EU164. More ...