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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

The TCP/IP protocol Datagram Format
A datagram is the packet format defined by the Internet Protocol. A pictorial representation of an IP datagram shows the first five or six 32-bit words of the datagram are control information called the header. More ...

Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) Protocol
Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) protocol is a computer networking technology intended to simplify the creation and configuration of networks, while enabling multipath routing. It is the replacement for the older spanning tree protocols. More ...

Integration of IPv6 with IPv4
Almost all networks use IPv4. The question is how to move them over to IPv6 while allowing them to keep the networks they currently have operating. There are three methods. More ...

What's the Difference Between a Packet and a Frame?
When speaking of the data in a network, people often call everything a packet. A more proper generic term would be protocol data unit or PDU. The specific name for a PDU depends on at what layer the data unit is in the OSI model. More ...

An Introduction to the Types of VPNs
There are three types of VPNs that provide users with the functionality described above and these fall within the two categories: computer-to-network VPNs and network-to-network VPNs. More ...

Networking Protocols, Ports, Standards, and Organizations What Does it All Mean?
A protocol is a set of rules that devices agree to. A port is specific electronic connection, or software interface a protocol uses. A standard is a specification that the characteristics of the protocol's signal and the design of the interface. Networking standards are developed by networking standards organizations. More ...

IPv4 Datagram Fields
If you are pursuing CompTIA Network+ certification, of if you're involved in network troubleshooting, it's important to understand the construction of an IP datagram. More ...

NTP Server Systems - The Network Time Protocol
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is utilized by NTP Server systems to distribute accurate time information to network time clients. The NTP protocol is widely used throughout the Internet to provide synchronization of computers and processes. This article discusses how NTP server systems utilize the Network Time Protocol to provide networks with an accurate reference of time. More ...

IPv4 Address Classes
Originally, IP network numbers were defined with rigid boundaries and grouped into address classes. Even though address classes was created to facilitate efficient use of the IPv4 address space, because of its rigidity it has been abandoned for more flexible classless addressing. More ...

Wireless Standards - 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n 802.11i Explained
The IEEE 802.11 family of standards which provides for Wireless Ethernet or (Wi-Fi) has evolved over the years. This article explains the differences between 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n and 802.11i. More ...

WAN Network Protocols - DSL, SONET, HDLC, DWDM, DLSW+
This article discusses some of the most implemented Wide Area Networking (WAN) protocols in enterprise networking environments today including HDLC, DSL, SONET, DWDM, and DLSW+. HDLC is a Cisco proprietary protocol for designed for sending data across serial links. More ...

Networking and Internet Standards Organizations
Without standards, the Internet would be chaos. The primary organization that sets communications standards for the Internet is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). More ...

Major Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite
This is a chart of the layers of the TCP/IP Suite and the major protocols in each layer. As you move your mouse pointer over each protocol acronym, a brief description of the protocol appears. This is not a comprehensive list. More ...

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