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Each year 1.5 million shelter animals are euthanized (670,000 dogs and 860,000 cats). Source: ASPCA. The solution is not to shelter unwanted pets, but to SHUT DOWN THE PET MILLS. Anyone who wants a pet will just have to adapt a great pet from a shelter.

Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Routing Datagrams
Systems can deliver packets only to other devices attached to the same physical network. A gateway is a network point, referred to as a router, that acts as an entrance to another network. More ...

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)
A VLAN (Virtual LAN) allows a network administrator to partition a LAN to conform to the business functions of the organization without physically modifying the network. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that allows an administrator to configure VLANs on a single VTP server, easing the administration of a network. More ...

TCP Windowing
It would be inefficient to return an ACK message as each segment is received. The number of segments received before an ACK message is returned is called the TCP receive window size. More ...

TCP/IP Protocol Suite
A good portion of the knowledge required to be a network technician relates to the TCP/IP protocol suite. This article describes the most important protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Many other less frequently used protocols exist. More ...

IPv6 Address Auto Configuration
When an IPv6 device first connects to a network, it can configure its own IPv6 address. It does this using a mechanism called MAC-to-EU164. More ...

TCP/IP Features
In just 24 sessions of one hour or less, using this book?s straightforward, step-by-step approach, you'll discover how to implement, monitor, and manage a TCP/IP network?even the latest cloud-based and IPv6 networks. More ...

Networking and Internet Standards Organizations
Without standards, the Internet would be chaos. The primary organization that sets communications standards for the Internet is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). More ...

IPv4 Datagram Fields
If you are pursuing CompTIA Network+ certification, of if you're involved in network troubleshooting, it's important to understand the construction of an IP datagram. More ...

Comparison of the Layers of the OSI and TCP/IP Models
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed by DARPA in the early 1970s. The OSI networking model was developed in Europe in 1986. This article compares the two networking standards. More ...

WAN Network Protocols - DSL, SONET, HDLC, DWDM, DLSW+
This article discusses some of the most implemented Wide Area Networking (WAN) protocols in enterprise networking environments today including HDLC, DSL, SONET, DWDM, and DLSW+. HDLC is a Cisco proprietary protocol for designed for sending data across serial links. More ...

IPv4 Address Classes
Originally, IP network numbers were defined with rigid boundaries and grouped into address classes. Even though address classes was created to facilitate efficient use of the IPv4 address space, because of its rigidity it has been abandoned for more flexible classless addressing. More ...

T-Carrier - A Complete and Comprehensive Guide
T-carrier was introduced in 1962 by AT&T Bell Laboratories. A T1 line has the capacity of transmitting 1.544 Mbps and it can also be used to send 24 digitized voice channels. Dispite its age, because of its reliability, T-carrier is the most commonly used digital transmission service in the US, Canada, and Japan. More ...

Video - Transport Layer (Layer 4) of OSI Networking Model
In this video by Kevin Wallace you learn about the Transport Layer of the OSI networking model. More ...

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