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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

The TCP/IP protocol Datagram Format
A datagram is the packet format defined by the Internet Protocol. A pictorial representation of an IP datagram shows the first five or six 32-bit words of the datagram are control information called the header. More ...

The OSI Application Layer
This layer provides the interface between applications and the Network Operating System (NOS). The Application layer provides network services and applications such as HTTP, FTP, TELNET and SMP. More ...

Internet Protocol versions IPv4, IPv5 and IPv6
Internet Protocol is the part of the TCP/IP protocol that is responsible for addressing packets. IPv4 uses a 32-bit address IPv6 uses a 128-bit address. This article describes how IPv4 are converted to IPv6 addresses. More ...

The OSI Reference Model
No real world network operating systems conform exactly to the OSI model, but it is useful as a reference when describing existing systems. It is difficult to study network devices such as routers, switches, and gateways without using the model. More ...

IPv4 Datagram Fields
If you are pursuing CompTIA Network+ certification, of if you're involved in network troubleshooting, it's important to understand the construction of an IP datagram. More ...

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
Neighbor Discovery Protocol is part of the new version of the Internet Protocol (IPv6). Its function is to resolve IPv6 addresses into valid MAC addresses. All addresses discovered by NDR are stored in a buffer known as the neighbor cache. More ...

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)
A VLAN (Virtual LAN) allows a network administrator to partition a LAN to conform to the business functions of the organization without physically modifying the network. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that allows an administrator to configure VLANs on a single VTP server, easing the administration of a network. More ...

How to Set Up FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a network. This article explains how to set up FTP on IIS and that FTP is not a secure protocol and some secure file transfer alternatives. More ...

TCP/IP Utilities
TCP/IP comes with a set of command line utilities that a network technician can use to manage and troubleshoot a network. PING is used to test the ability of two hosts on a network to communicate. More ...

Understanding IP Routing
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCP/IP suite of protocols is the underlying technology for information exchange on the Internet. This essential reference shows you how to isolate and resolve common network failures and to sustain optimal network operation. More ...

Classless IP Addressing
In the beginning, classful addressing was a great idea for keeping IP addresses organized. But as the Internet grew, and IP addresses became scarce, classful addressing was found to be too limiting. Classless IP addressing, known as Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) was released in September 1993. More ...

NTP Server Systems - The Network Time Protocol
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is utilized by NTP Server systems to distribute accurate time information to network time clients. The NTP protocol is widely used throughout the Internet to provide synchronization of computers and processes. This article discusses how NTP server systems utilize the Network Time Protocol to provide networks with an accurate reference of time. More ...

RADIUS Protocol
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is an application layer protocol that provides centralized Authorization, Authentication, and Accounting management for users who connect and use a network service. More ...