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Victims of Sandy Hook

Stop the Slaughter of Innocents. Congress is bought and paid for by gun lunatics and gun promotion groups. If you want to live in a safe America, help buy Congress back for America. Send a donation to Mayors Against Illegal Guns, 909 Third Avenue, 15th Floor New York, NY 10022

Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Looking at the OSI 7 Layer Reference Model
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a 7 layer reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. Don't confuse The OSI model with TCP/IP Protocol which has 4 layers and is the actual architecture used for networking. More ...

IP version 6 (IPv6) Advantages and Implementation
The Internet has, to all intents and purposes, run out of public IP version 4 addresses. The solution to this issue is new IP version 6. This would require a parallel IPv6 based Internet to be running until all IPv4 connections have been converted. More ...

T-Carrier - A Complete and Comprehensive Guide
T-carrier was introduced in 1962 by AT&T Bell Laboratories. A T1 line has the capacity of transmitting 1.544 Mbps and it can also be used to send 24 digitized voice channels. Dispite its age, because of its reliability, T-carrier is the most commonly used digital transmission service in the US, Canada, and Japan. More ...

Session Border Controllers - More Than Just a Voice Firewall
The migration from Time-Division Multiplexing to the more flexible IP based SIP networks brought an unexpected security challenge. Session Border Controllers focused primarily on SIP and H.323 session security. More ...

The OSI Physical Layer
The Physical layer (OSI layer 1) deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications of the network hardware. Layer 1 specifications define connectors, pin-outs, signal voltages, and related software. More ...

Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast. What Does It Mean?
Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast are different network transmission methods. Unicast is a transmission between a single sender and a single receiver, while Broadcast is a transmission from a single sender to all clients on the network. More ...

Remote Control Protocols
Remote control protocols like Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), Secure Shell (SSH), and Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA), allow a system to access another system and transfer the user interface, keystrokes, and mouse movements between syatems as if you were actually sitting at the other syatem. More ...

Network Operating Systems
The purpose of a network is to permit users share resources located on other computers and to share peripheral devices such as printers. A network operating system (NOS) is specialized systems software designed to provide networking functionality. More ...

IEEE 802.11.x Wireless Standards
The 802.11 standard, approved in 1997, applies to wireless LANs with a 1 or 2 Mbps transmission rate in the 2.4 GHz band. Sometimes the term 802.11 is used to refer to the 802.11x family of specifications. More ...

Kerberos Authentication Protocol
Kerberos is an authentication protocol which allows computers communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another. Windows 2000 and later use Kerberos as their default authentication method. More ...

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Explained
In the early days of TCP/IP each device on a network had stored on its hard disk a configuration file that an administrator used to manually assign a static IP address. Today a network administrator is no longer required to maintain an IP and MAC address configuration file a server. Every device on a network is automatically assigned a unique IP address by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). More ...

IPv6 Address Format
IPv4 is running out of addresses. IPv6 was designed to solve this problem therefore it is important to understand the format of an IPv6 address. More ...

TCP/IP Features
In just 24 sessions of one hour or less, using this book?s straightforward, step-by-step approach, you'll discover how to implement, monitor, and manage a TCP/IP network?even the latest cloud-based and IPv6 networks. More ...

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