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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) Protocol
Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) protocol is a computer networking technology intended to simplify the creation and configuration of networks, while enabling multipath routing. It is the replacement for the older spanning tree protocols. More ...

SYN-ACK Handshake to Establish a TCP Connection
TCP uses a SYN-ACK handshake to establish a connection. Three messages are required to establish a TCP connection between two hosts. More ...

Video - Introducing the OSI Model
This video by Kevin Wallace introduces the OSI networking model. More ...

OSI Transport Layer
The Transport layer (OSI layer 4) uses connection-oriented protocols to provide a reliable end-to-end connection between the source computer and the destination computer. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer protocol. More ...

What is PPP, PPPoA and PPPoE?
PPP was designed to provide a connection between two devices. PPP comes with options including encryption, authentication and data compression. PPPoA is the standard for connection over an ADSL network. PPPoE is the standard for connection over an Ethernet network. More ...

Network Switches
A bridge or router may be referred to as a switch because it uses information in the data packet to choose a path from one network segment to another. A bridge may be referred to as a layer 2 switch because it uses information from layer 2, the Data Link layer of the OSI model. More ...

Comparison of the Layers of the OSI and TCP/IP Models
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed by DARPA in the early 1970s. The OSI networking model was developed in Europe in 1986. This article compares the two networking standards. More ...

TCP/IP Utilities
TCP/IP comes with a set of command line utilities that a network technician can use to manage and troubleshoot a network. PING is used to test the ability of two hosts on a network to communicate. More ...

Networking Protocols, Ports, Standards, and Organizations What Does it All Mean?
A protocol is a set of rules that devices agree to. A port is specific electronic connection, or software interface a protocol uses. A standard is a specification that the characteristics of the protocol's signal and the design of the interface. Networking standards are developed by networking standards organizations. More ...

IP version 6 (IPv6) Advantages and Implementation
The Internet has, to all intents and purposes, run out of public IP version 4 addresses. The solution to this issue is new IP version 6. This would require a parallel IPv6 based Internet to be running until all IPv4 connections have been converted. More ...

Ports and Sockets
Data transmitted over the Internet carries a 32-bit IP address that identifies its destination computer and a 16-bit number that identifies a port on that computer. The combination of the IP address and the port number is called a socket. A pair of sockets, one on the sending computer and one on the receiving computer uniquely identifies a specific connection on the Internet. More ...

Protocol Suites
Network protocols define rules for handling data and communicating in a particular networking environment. Individual protocols operate at specific layers in the OSI reference model. A protocol suite is a group of protocols designed to work together. More ...

IP Addressing and Subnetting
Today, many different kinds of devices can communicate on a network. A network device might be a computer, a router, a printer, or any number of unusual devices. Every device on a network that uses the Internet protocol (IP) needs a unique IP address. More ...