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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Link Aggregation
If all ports on a switch are operating at the same speed, the ports most likely to experience congestion are ports connecting to another switch or router. To help alleviate congested links between switches, you can logically combine multiple physical connections into a single logical connection. More ...

Integration of IPv6 with IPv4
Almost all networks use IPv4. The question is how to move them over to IPv6 while allowing them to keep the networks they currently have operating. There are three methods. More ...

IPv6 Multicast Addresses
An IPv6 multicast address defines a group of devices known as a multicast group. Unlike IPv4, there is no broadcast address in IPv6. Instead, IPv6 uses multicast. A packet sent to a multicast group always has a unicast source address. More ...

Networking and Internet Standards Organizations
Without standards, the Internet would be chaos. The primary organization that sets communications standards for the Internet is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). More ...

IP Addressing
The IP protocol uses a 32-bit address to define the network segment address and the node address. If the device is to be connected to the Internet, the address needs to be unique among all other devices connected to the Internet. More ...

The OSI Data Link Layer
The Data Link layer uses MAC addresses is to pass data frames from the Physical layer to the Network layer and vice versa. The use of MAC addresses permits the direction of data within the same network, but not across routers. More ...

The OSI Presentation Layer
At this layer applications communicate on a format for exchanging data. The Session layer provides character set conversion and formats the data. It performs encryption and decryption, compression and decompression. More ...

IPv6 Unicast Addresses
The 3 categories of IPv6 addresses are:Unicast identifies a single interface. A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address. Multicast identifies a group of interfaces. A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by that address. Anycast identifies a group of interfaces. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the closest member of a group. More ...

14 Common Network Ports You Should Know
Ports are virtual software-based and are managed by a computer's operating system. Different types of data flow to and from a computer over the same network connection. The use of ports informs computers what to do with the data they receive. Each port is assigned a number, and each is associated with a specific process or service. Port numbers are standardized, most reserved for certain protocols, for example, all HTTP messages go to port 80. More ...

What's the Difference Between a Packet and a Frame?
When speaking of the data in a network, people often call everything a packet. A more proper generic term would be protocol data unit or PDU. The specific name for a PDU depends on at what layer the data unit is in the OSI model. More ...

Video Streaming Protocols
Video surveillance systems currently are undergoing a transition where more and more traditional analog solutions are being replaced by digital solutions. Here, some of the network protocols used in video streaming are described. More ...

IPv4 to IPv6 Transition With the Dual-Stack Technique
Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 has been slow. If you can't immediately convert all your network hardware to IPv6, the dual-stack technique allows the easiest operation of IPv4 and IPv6 devices on the same network. More ...

The OSI Session Layer
The Session layer, layer seven of the OSI model, establishes, synchronizes, maintains and terminates sessions between computers on a network. It establishes a connection ID and authenticates security. More ...

The OSI Reference Model
No real world network operating systems conform exactly to the OSI model, but it is useful as a reference when describing existing systems. It is difficult to study network devices such as routers, switches, and gateways without using the model. More ...

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a routing protocol like RIP, however, it scales better than RIP because it uses a sophisticated metric based on bandwidth and delay, and has other advantages. More ...


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