Computer Networking Protocols and Standards
The OSI Reference Model
No real world network operating systems conform exactly to the OSI model, but it is useful
as a reference when describing existing systems. It is difficult to study network devices
such as routers, switches, and gateways without using the model. More ...
The OSI Data Link Layer
The Data Link layer uses MAC addresses is to pass data frames from the Physical layer to
the Network layer and vice versa. The use of MAC addresses permits the direction of data
within the same network, but not across routers. More ...
A bridge or router may be referred to as a "switch" because it uses information in the data
packet to choose a path from one network segment to another. A bridge may be referred to as
a "layer 2 switch" because it uses information from layer 2, the Data Link layer of the OSI model. More ...
The OSI Physical Layer
The Physical layer (OSI layer 1) deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications
of the network hardware. Layer 1 specifications define connectors, pin-outs, signal
voltages, and related software. More ...
Network protocols define rules for handling data and communicating in a particular
networking environment. Individual protocols operate at specific layers in the OSI
reference model. A protocol suite is a group of protocols designed to work together. More ...
WAN Network Protocols - DSL, SONET, HDLC, DWDM, DLSW+
This article discusses some of the most implemented Wide Area Networking (WAN) protocols
in enterprise networking environments today including HDLC, DSL, SONET, DWDM, and DLSW+.
HDLC is a Cisco proprietary protocol for designed
for sending data across serial links. More ...
NTP Server Systems - The Network Time Protocol
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is utilized by NTP Server systems to distribute
accurate time information to network time clients. The NTP protocol is widely used
throughout the Internet to provide synchronization of computers and processes. This
article discusses how NTP server systems utilize the Network Time Protocol to
provide networks with an accurate reference of time. More ...
Video - Data Link Layer of OSI Networking Model
In this video by Kevin Wallace you learn about the Data Link Layer of the OSI networking model. More ...
Free eBook: Introduction to 802.11 Wireless
The growth of wireless mobile devices is incredible. If you're an IT professional you'll need
to understand wireless technology. This free ebook by Aaron Balchunas explains everything
from radio frequency to wireless authentication protocols. More ...
The OSI Network Layer
The Network layer (OSI layer 3) uses routable protocols to deliver data packets to
networks connected through routers. Routing is the process of moving data packets from
one network or network segment to another. More ...
Video - Transport Layer (Layer 4) of OSI Networking Model
In this video by Kevin Wallace you learn about the Transport Layer of the OSI networking model. More ...