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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Networking and Internet Standards Organizations
Without standards, the Internet would be chaos. The primary organization that sets communications standards for the Internet is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). More ...

Integration of IPv6 with IPv4
Almost all networks use IPv4. The question is how to move them over to IPv6 while allowing them to keep the networks they currently have operating. There are three methods. More ...

A Simple Description of the IPv6 Header and Datagram
This article provides a simple description of the IPv6 header and datagram without a lot referring back to IPv4. More ...

Network Cabling and Components
Although the power and sophistication of networking protocols and software is impressive, a network could not operate without physical cable and components. Even a wireless network needs physical components such as access points. More ...

An Introduction to the Types of VPNs
There are three types of VPNs that provide users with the functionality described above and these fall within the two categories: computer-to-network VPNs and network-to-network VPNs. More ...

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Explained
In the early days of TCP/IP each device on a network had stored on its hard disk a configuration file that an administrator used to manually assign a static IP address. Today a network administrator is no longer required to maintain an IP and MAC address configuration file a server. Every device on a network is automatically assigned a unique IP address by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). More ...

T-Carrier
T-carrier is a time-division multiplexed (TDM) digital signal that has been used by the telephone companies for many decades. 24 8-bit signals are time-division multiplexed into a 1.544 Mbps t-carrier signal. More ...

Session Border Controllers - More Than Just a Voice Firewall
The migration from Time-Division Multiplexing to the more flexible IP based SIP networks brought an unexpected security challenge. Session Border Controllers focused primarily on SIP and H.323 session security. More ...

The OSI Session Layer
The Session layer, layer seven of the OSI model, establishes, synchronizes, maintains and terminates sessions between computers on a network. It establishes a connection ID and authenticates security. More ...

X.25 and Frame Relay Overview
Frame Relay originated as an extension of integrated services digital network (ISDN). Its designers aimed to enable a packet-switched network to transport over circuit-switched technology. The technology has become a stand-alone and cost-effective means of creating a WAN. More ...

IP Addressing
The IP protocol uses a 32-bit address to define the network segment address and the node address. If the device is to be connected to the Internet, the address needs to be unique among all other devices connected to the Internet. More ...

Network Routing Protocols - IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP
The purpose of routing protocols is to learn of available routes on the network and make routing decisions. There are two primary routing protocol types; link state and distance vector. Some of the most common routing protocols include RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and BGP. More ...

IEEE 802.11.x Wireless Standards
The 802.11 standard, approved in 1997, applies to wireless LANs with a 1 or 2 Mbps transmission rate in the 2.4 GHz band. Sometimes the term 802.11 is used to refer to the 802.11x family of specifications. More ...