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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Explained
In the early days of TCP/IP each device on a network had stored on its hard disk a configuration file that an administrator used to manually assign a static IP address. Today a network administrator is no longer required to maintain an IP and MAC address configuration file a server. Every device on a network is automatically assigned a unique IP address by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). More ...

OSI Transport Layer
The Transport layer (OSI layer 4) uses connection-oriented protocols to provide a reliable end-to-end connection between the source computer and the destination computer. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer protocol. More ...

The OSI Application Layer
This layer provides the interface between applications and the Network Operating System (NOS). The Application layer provides network services and applications such as HTTP, FTP, TELNET and SMP. More ...

IPv4 Address Classes
Originally, IP network numbers were defined with rigid boundaries and grouped into address classes. Even though address classes was created to facilitate efficient use of the IPv4 address space, because of its rigidity it has been abandoned for more flexible classless addressing. More ...

The OSI Reference Model
No real world network operating systems conform exactly to the OSI model, but it is useful as a reference when describing existing systems. It is difficult to study network devices such as routers, switches, and gateways without using the model. More ...

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)
A VLAN (Virtual LAN) allows a network administrator to partition a LAN to conform to the business functions of the organization without physically modifying the network. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that allows an administrator to configure VLANs on a single VTP server, easing the administration of a network. More ...

T-Carrier - A Complete and Comprehensive Guide
T-carrier was introduced in 1962 by AT&T Bell Laboratories. A T1 line has the capacity of transmitting 1.544 Mbps and it can also be used to send 24 digitized voice channels. Dispite its age, because of its reliability, T-carrier is the most commonly used digital transmission service in the US, Canada, and Japan. More ...

NTP Server Systems - The Network Time Protocol
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is utilized by NTP Server systems to distribute accurate time information to network time clients. The NTP protocol is widely used throughout the Internet to provide synchronization of computers and processes. This article discusses how NTP server systems utilize the Network Time Protocol to provide networks with an accurate reference of time. More ...

Major Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite
This is a chart of the layers of the TCP/IP Suite and the major protocols in each layer. As you move your mouse pointer over each protocol acronym, a brief description of the protocol appears. This is not a comprehensive list. More ...

Session Border Controllers - More Than Just a Voice Firewall
The migration from Time-Division Multiplexing to the more flexible IP based SIP networks brought an unexpected security challenge. Session Border Controllers focused primarily on SIP and H.323 session security. More ...

Introducing OpenStack
OpenStack is one of the most popular cloud computing management packages. OpenStack provides a common platform for controlling clouds of servers, storage, network, and even application resources. OpenStack is managed through a web-based interface, a command-line interface (CLI), and an application programming interface (API). More ...

Looking at the OSI 7 Layer Reference Model
The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a 7 layer reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. Don't confuse The OSI model with TCP/IP Protocol which has 4 layers and is the actual architecture used for networking. More ...

Video - The Upper Layers 5 Through 7 of the OSI Networking Model
In this video by Kevin Wallace you learn about Layers 5 Through 7 of the OSI networking model. More ...