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Computer Networking Protocols and Standards

The TCP/IP protocol Datagram Format
A datagram is the packet format defined by the Internet Protocol. A pictorial representation of an IP datagram shows the first five or six 32-bit words of the datagram are control information called the header. More ...

Network Switches
A bridge or router may be referred to as a switch because it uses information in the data packet to choose a path from one network segment to another. A bridge may be referred to as a layer 2 switch because it uses information from layer 2, the Data Link layer of the OSI model. More ...

A Simple Description of the IPv6 Header and Datagram
This article provides a simple description of the IPv6 header and datagram without a lot referring back to IPv4. More ...

Protocol Suites
Network protocols define rules for handling data and communicating in a particular networking environment. Individual protocols operate at specific layers in the OSI reference model. A protocol suite is a group of protocols designed to work together. More ...

Network Cabling and Components
Although the power and sophistication of networking protocols and software is impressive, a network could not operate without physical cable and components. Even a wireless network needs physical components such as access points. More ...

What is PPP, PPPoA and PPPoE?
PPP was designed to provide a connection between two devices. PPP comes with options including encryption, authentication and data compression. PPPoA is the standard for connection over an ADSL network. PPPoE is the standard for connection over an Ethernet network. More ...

What Is Fabric Networking?
The networking industry came up with the term 'Fabric' to describe networking technologies that allow switches to connect in a way to achieve a mesh topology. More ...

IP Addressing
The IP protocol uses a 32-bit address to define the network segment address and the node address. If the device is to be connected to the Internet, the address needs to be unique among all other devices connected to the Internet. More ...

The OSI Application Layer
This layer provides the interface between applications and the Network Operating System (NOS). The Application layer provides network services and applications such as HTTP, FTP, TELNET and SMP. More ...

Comparison of the Layers of the OSI and TCP/IP Models
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed by DARPA in the early 1970s. The OSI networking model was developed in Europe in 1986. This article compares the two networking standards. More ...

Basic TCP/IP Networking
In this article, I'm going to describe how a network works. I am NOT not going to load you down with details. Instead, I'm just going to describe what happens when you start your client computer. How it gets access to the network. More ...

Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) Protocol
Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) protocol is a computer networking technology intended to simplify the creation and configuration of networks, while enabling multipath routing. It is the replacement for the older spanning tree protocols. More ...

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is used by IPv6 hosts for Router Discovery, Neighbor Discovery and Duplicate Address Discovery. More ...