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Each year 1.5 million shelter animals are euthanized (670,000 dogs and 860,000 cats). Source: ASPCA. The solution is not to shelter unwanted pets, but to SHUT DOWN THE PET MILLS. Anyone who wants a pet will just have to adapt a great pet from a shelter.

IEEE 802.11.x Wireless Standards

IEEE 802.11.x wireless standards

The 802.11 standard, approved in 1997, applies to wireless LANs with a 1 or 2 Mbps transmission rate in the 2.4 GHz band. Sometimes the term 802.11 is used to refer to the 802.11x family of specifications.

802.11b

In September of 1999, the IEEE extended the 802.11 standard, creating the 802.11b standard. It supports a maximum bandwidth up to 11Mbps in the 2.4GHz S-Band Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) frequency range. Being an unregulated frequency, 802.11b device can suffer from interference from other wireless users, cordless phones, microwave ovens and other devices using the same 2.4 GHz band.

The 802.11b wireless standard uses CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) similar to Ethernet. 802.11b circuits are specified to operate at a rate of 11 Mbps, but the system monitors the signal quality. If the signal quality then the system can transmit at a slower data rate with more error correction that is more resilient. Under poor quality conditions the system will first fall back to 5.5 Mbps, then 2 Mbps, and finally 1 Mbps. This scheme is known as ARS (Adaptive Rate Selection).

802.11a

About the same time 802.11b was created, 802.11a was created. 802.11a supports a maximum bandwidth up to 55Mbps in the 5GHz band. An advantage of 802.11a is that it operates at a radio frequency that's less clogged by competing signals from other wireless users, cordless phones and microwave ovens. But 802.11a was not popular due to the more expensive cost of 5GHz components and not being compatible with 802.11b.

The 802.11a wireless standard uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), a transmission technique that splits the signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies. Devices that use the 802.11a standard, if they are not dual band (eg. 802.11a/b), are not compatible with any of the products that use the 2.5 GHz frequency (802.11b, g or n).

802.11g

With 802.11b not being compatible with 802.11a, there was still a need for higher bandwidth. In June 2003, 802.11g was released to provide maximum bandwidth up to 55Mbps in the 2.4GHz band. 802.11g is backward compatible with 802.11b because they both use the same 2.4GHz radio frequency. However 802.11g again suffers from the same interference as 802.11b in the crowded 2.4 GHz range, But 802.11g provides better security features, such as WiFi Protected Access (WAP) and WPA2 authentication with pre-shared key or RADIUS server.

802.11n

In October 2009 the IEEE approved 802.11n wireless communication standard to provide a maximum bandwidth up to 300Mbps. 802.11n can operate in the 2.4GHz or 5GHz band, and is backward compatible with 802.11a (5GHz band), 802.11b (2.4GHz band) and 802.11g (2.4GHz band) devices.

The 802.11n standard supports MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) antennas. 802.11n operates on both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz bands. Support for 5 GHz bands is optional. It operates at a maximum net data rate from 54 Mbps to 600 Mbps.

802.11ac

IEEE 802.11ac delivers speeds ranging from 433 Mbps up to several gigabits per second. It works exclusively in the 5GHz band. 802.11ac operates up to eight MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) antennas. It uses beamforming technology which sends the signal directly to client devices.

802.11i

In June 2004 the IEEE ratified the 802.11i standard. It provides no changes to the operating band or maximum bandwidth of wireless communication, but instead specifies security mechanisms for wireless networks. It replaces the Authentication and privacy clause of the original 802.11 standard which called for WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), which was shown to have security vulnerabilities, with RSN (Robust Security Network), which uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher.

More Networking Protocols and Standards:
• IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
• Network Operating Systems
• What Is Fabric Networking?
• IEEE 802 Standards Specify the Basics of Physical and Logical Networking
• Protocol Suites
• Session Border Controllers - More Than Just a Voice Firewall
• TCP/IP Features
• IPv4 Address Classes
• Free eBook: IPv6 Addressing
• Networking Protocols, Ports, Standards, and Organizations What Does it All Mean?

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