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Each year 1.5 million shelter animals are euthanized (670,000 dogs and 860,000 cats). Source: ASPCA. The solution is not to shelter unwanted pets, but to SHUT DOWN THE PET MILLS. Anyone who wants a pet will just have to adapt a great pet from a shelter.

The OSI Application Layer

The Application layer, layer seven of the OSI model, provides the interface between applications and the Network Operating System (NOS). The Application layer provides network services and applications such as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), TELNET, SNMP (Simple Netwrok Management Protocol) and SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol).

OSI Application Layer

When you think of the Application layer, don't think in terms of applications, but rather protocols. For example there are several different FTP applications that use the FTP protocol at the Application layer.

More Networking Protocols and Standards:
• NTP Server Systems - The Network Time Protocol
• Free eBook: IPv6 Addressing
• The OSI Application Layer
• IEEE 802.11.x Wireless Standards
• TCP/IP Protocol Suite
• Basic TCP/IP Networking
• X.25 and Frame Relay Overview
• Understanding IP Routing
• The TCP/IP protocol Datagram Format
• The OSI Network Layer

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