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Each year 1.5 million shelter animals are euthanized (670,000 dogs and 860,000 cats). Source: ASPCA. The solution is not to shelter unwanted pets, but to SHUT DOWN THE PET MILLS. Anyone who wants a pet will just have to adapt a great pet from a shelter.

IEEE 802 Standards Specify the Basics of Physical and Logical Networking

The (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is an organization that defines standards for electronics, communications, and computing. It is also a predominant organization in defining networking standards. The IEEE 802 series of standards define basic physical and logical networking. Below is a summary of the IEEE 802 series of standards.

802.1 LAN/MAN Bridging Defines the capability to permit or deny network connectivity. Covers MAC-based bridging (Media Access Control), virtual LAN access and port-based access control. Covers applying traffic policy based on user or machine identity.
802.2 LLC Defines the LLC (Logical Link Control). Defines the LLC (Logical Link Control) The LLC is the top sub-layer in the data-link layer, OSI Layer 2. Interfaces with the network Layer 3.
802.3 Ethernet Ethernet - Covers networking using CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection).
802.4 Token Bus Defines media access control for token passing bus networks. With a token bus, the endpoints of the bus do not form a ring.
802.5 Token Ring Covers the original token-passing standard that was developed by IBM. The token circulates around the ring. Defines token ring media access control.
802.6 MAN Defines DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus), a table-free routing technique that offers high-speed packet switching for Metropolitan Area Networks.
802.7 Broadband Defines broadband local area networks using coaxial cable. This standard was developed for cable Internet companies.
802.8 Fiber Optics Defines a LAN standard for fiber optic media practices for use in fiber optic token passing computer networks like FDDI.
802.9 Integrated Services Defines standards for integrated voice and data access over existing Category 3 twisted-pair network cable installations.
802.10 Secure Data Exchange Defines SDE (Secure Data Exchange) protocol, an interoperable LAN security standard for functions such as key management, access control, data confidentiality and data integrity that can be used in local area networks and metropolitan area networks.
802.11 Wireless Access Control Defines Wi-Fi ("Wi-Fi" having no meaning except being derived from a logo created by a company named Interbrand to use as an interoperability seal and for marketing. Specifies Wireless LAN Media Access Control and Physical Layer specification. 802.11a, b, g, etc. are amendments to the original 802.11 standard.
802.12 High Speed Networking Defines the Demand Priority access method. which increases Ethernet data rate to 100 Mbps by controlling media utilization.

IEEE standards are created by Working Groups. A PAR (Project Authorization Request) is submitted by an IEEE-SA Standards Association member, (IEEE-SA is an organization within IEEE that develops standards). With PAR approval, a Working Group is defined (working groups are open to anyone to participate) and it works to develop a standard. When a standard is complete and it is no longer being updated or seeing wide use, the working group is disbanded.

More Networking Protocols and Standards:
• Video - Transport Layer (Layer 4) of OSI Networking Model
• What is PPP, PPPoA and PPPoE?
• T-Carrier
• Free eBook: Introduction to 802.11 Wireless
• Video - Data Link Layer of OSI Networking Model
• RADIUS Protocol
• IEEE 802 Standards Specify the Basics of Physical and Logical Networking
• Video - Network Layer (Layer 3) of OSI Networking Model
• Remote Control Protocols
• OSI Network Model

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