Welcome to Bucaro TecHelp!

Bucaro TecHelp
Maintain Your Computer and Use it More Effectively
to Design a Web Site and Make Money on the Web

About Bucaro TecHelp About BTH User Agreement User Agreement Privacy Policy Privacy Site Map Site Map Contact Bucaro TecHelp Contact RSS News Feeds News Feeds

Victims of Sandy Hook

Stop the Slaughter of Innocents. Congress is bought and paid for by gun lunatics and gun promotion groups. If you want to live in a safe America, help buy Congress back for America. Send a donation to Mayors Against Illegal Guns, 909 Third Avenue, 15th Floor New York, NY 10022

1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G Cellular Wireless Standards

The meaning of the terms 3G and 4G have been made very confusing because some wireless carriers like Sprint and Verizon have built new high-speed 4G networks from the ground up while other wireless carriers (AT & T and T-Mobile) have chosen to doctor-up their 3G service and market it as 4G.

The original cellular wireless, introduced in the 1980s, (now referred to 1G for 1st Generation) was entirely analog, It worked by modulating a frequency of 150 MHz. 2G cellular networks were launched in Finland in 1991, based on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard. The difference between 1G and 2G is that with 2G the voice signal is digital and is encrypted.

GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, (for example in Canada and the United States) the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead. With GSM the frequency is divided into timeslots for individual phones to use. These eight timeslots are grouped into a Time division multiple access (TDMA) frame. This allows eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per frequency.

3G uses the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 Kbit⁄s.

4G uses the IMT-Advanced specification set by the ITU in 2008. To meet the IMT-Advanced standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of up to 1 Gbit⁄s. The new standard also uses Internet protocol (IP) and the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to jam more data into the frequency. True 4G networks are referred to as Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks.

The wireless carriers that have chosen to doctor-up their 3G service rather than built new high-speed 4G networks, use technologies such as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and WiMax (Originally designed as a wireless home broadband service) to beef up their 3G networks. They then market this as "4G". The current versions of these technologies do not meet the IMT-Advanced specification requirement of data rates up to 1 Gbit⁄s for 4G systems.

More Computer Anatomy Articles:
• The Chemistry of Laptop Batteries Explained
• A Guide to Basic PC Cooling
• SD (Secure Digital) Memory Card Basics
• Understanding Computer Memory
• The Master Boot Record (MBR)
• How to Build Your Own PC - The Smart Way
• A+ Certification Study Guide, Sixth Edition
• Video - How to Buy a Motherboard
• Hard Drives - ATA versus SATA
• Windows Registry Basics

RSS Feed RSS Feed

Follow Stephen Bucaro Follow @Stephen Bucaro

Computer Subsections

Fire HD
[Site User Agreement] [Privacy Policy] [Site map] [Search This Site] [Contact Form]
Copyright©2001-2016 Bucaro TecHelp 13771 N Fountain Hills Blvd Suite 114-248 Fountain Hills, AZ 85268