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Computer Architecture

Intoduction to Digital Electronics
The entire field of computer technology relies on transistors. This article describes how transistors are constructed and how modern MOSFETs are combined to make digital logic circuits. More ...

Difference between Stack, Heap, and Queue
Stack, heap, and queue are ways that elements are stored in memory. Stack elements are added to the top of the stack, and removed from the top of the stack. The mnemonic LIFO is used to describe a stack (Last-In-First-Out). With a queue, the first one in is the first one out. The mnemonic FIFO is used to describe a queue. A heap is an area of memory where elements can be stored and removed in any order. More ...

Oscilloscope Required for Serious Digital Electronics Work
The oscilloscope is an instrument that displays digital signals on a line graph with time on the horizontal axis and voltage on the vertical axis. It will be difficult to do digital logic design without the use of an oscilloscope. More ...

CPU Chip Packaging
Over the development time of the computer, several different designs of packaging for the CPU chip die have been used. Each type of packaging has its advantages and disadvantages. This article reviews some common packages that might still be in use. More ...

Logical Versus Physical Memory Addresses
Computers use logical and physical addresses to access memory locatiuons. The CPU generates logical addresses. At run-time the Memory Management Unit (MMU) maps logical addresses to physical addresses. More ...

CPU Cache Basics
After the processor accesses a location in memory, there's a high probability that the next location in memory that it will access is in the same area of memory. So to make the computer run faster, a a smaller, faster memory called a cache is placed between main memory and the processor. More ...

Multicore Programming
A recent trend in system design is to place multiple computing cores on a single chip. Each core appears as a separate processor to the operating system. We call these multicore or multiprocessor systems. More ...

Multi-Processor Scheduling
Here, we discuss several concerns in multiprocessor scheduling in the context of Multicore, Multithreaded core, NUMA (Non-uniform memory access), and Heterogeneous multiprocessing architectures. More ...

AMD's Phenom Processor
Since 2005 AMD has used the Athlon name for their processors. This changed in 2007 when they released their new processor called Phenom. So we must ask the question; what is the difference between the Athlon and the Phenom? More ...

Intel's Dual-Core Core i3 Processor
Core i3 is an entry-level 2-core processor using the 32nm Westmere micro-architecture. With a Thermal Design Power (TDP) of 73 watts, the i3-530 is a cool-running chip that doesn't gobble loads of electricity, so those looking for a power-efficient, quiet machine will be happy with it. More ...

Multithreaded Programming Process' and Threads
A process generally has a complete, set of private resources, each process has its own memory space. Threads exist within a process, every process has at least one. Threads share the process's resources, including memory and open files. More ...

The Computer's Chipset
A computers memory and peripheral ports connect through two highly integrated chips called simply the chipset. The chipset consists of a northbridge chip and a southbridge chip. More ...


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