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Computer Architecture

Microcontroller Internal EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Memory
In some situations it is required that some program parameters such as configuration settings be keept after the system is powered off. This is made possible by including a EEPROM internally to the microcontroller. More ...

Multicore Programming
A recent trend in system design is to place multiple computing cores on a single chip. Each core appears as a separate processor to the operating system. We call these multicore or multiprocessor systems. More ...

Using The I2C Bus
The I2C bus is used for communications between individual integrated circuits located on the same PCB. The I2C protocol supports multi-master, multi-slave communication, which means you can add a lot of functionality to your design. More ...

AMD's Phenom II Processor
Phenom II is AMD's family of 45 nm multi-core processors and is the successor to the original Phenom. In the Phenom II, the shared L3 cache increased from 2MB to 6MB. The chip has an integrated, dual-channel memory controller that supports DDR3 RAM, and 4000MHz HyperTransport technology. More ...

The Motherboard Chipset
Because the chipset dictates the bus speed, type and amount of memory, and the type and number of I/O ports, much of a computer's performance is determined by its chipset. More ...

Monolithic Kernel vs Microkernel vs Hybrid Kernel
An operating system consists of two parts, the kernel space which operates in privileged mode, and the user space which operates in unprivileged mode. More ...

Challenges of Programming Multicore Systems
Operating system designers must write scheduling algorithms that use multiple processing cores and application programmers, mustmodify existing programs and design new programs that are multithreaded. More ...

Microcontroller Registers
Registers are special small memory locations where the microcontroller can write data to or read data from. Special function registers help point to main memory locations, indicate the result of a mathematical operation, hold parts of an instruction or indicate the status of some operation or hardware feature. Some registers are general purpose and may be used by the programmer at their own discretion. More ...

Network on a Chip (NoC)
NoC (Network on a Chip) is a method of placing a much larger number of processors on a multi-core chip. Much like a regular network, NoC has multiple point-to-point data links that are interconnected by routing switches. More ...

Operating System Memory Allocation Methods
Operating System Memory Allocation is the process of assigning blocks of main memory to various running processes and to move processes back and forward between the main memory and disk. More ...

AMD's Phenom Processor
Since 2005 AMD has used the Athlon name for their processors. This changed in 2007 when they released their new processor called Phenom. So we must ask the question; what is the difference between the Athlon and the Phenom? More ...

Introduction to Computer System Main Memory Operation
The CPU can be shared by a set of processes. Using CPU scheduling, we can improve the utilization of the CPU and the speed of the computer's response. To realize this increase in performance, multiple processes must be kept in memory. More ...


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