One of the primary functions performed by a computer is mathematics. Even functions like graphics and sorting data are mathematics - because everything on a computer is represented by digital data. This article describes the digital logic circuits used to perform binary addition and subtraction.

A | B | Sum | Carry |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

The circuit shown above and its accompanying logic diagram performs the function of adding two one-bit binary numbers. The output of the circuit provides the sum along with a possible carry. When adding higher-bit binary numbers however, provisions for a carry-in from a previous stage must be provided. For this reason, this circuit is called a "half-adder".

In the circuit shown above, a second stage has been added to accept a carry-in from a previous stage. The carry-out of this circuit is created by ORing the carry bits of both stages. This circuit is called a "full-adder".

A | B | C | Sum | Carry |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Logic diagram of the full adder.

To simplify circuit diagrams we could indicate a full adder using a simple box labeled with the circuit's function and with its inputs and outputs labeled.

By connecting eight full-adder circuits together, each circuit's carry-out output to the carry-in input of the next circuit, we can construct an eight-bit binary adder.

A | Control | Out |

0 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

Shown above is an exclusive OR (XOR) gate and it's logic table, except
this time we labeled one of its inputs *Control*. Note that when
the control input is low (binary 0), the output is the same as the binary
value on the A input. When the control input is high (binary 1), the output
is the *inverted* value of the A input. What we have here is a
controllable inverter. In other words with 0 on control, the input passes
though unchanged, with 1 on control, we have an inverter.

As previously described, in binary mathematics, subtracting a number is accomplished by instead adding the two's complement of the number. In the circuit shown above we run every bit of the second number of a binary math operation through a controllable inverter. If we wish to add the two numbers, we put 0 on the control line. If we wish to subtract the second number we put 1 on the control line. (In actual operation we would need to add 1 to the inverted number before adding).

This article describes some of the logic circuits used to create the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of a microprocessor.

**More Computer Architecture Articles:****• **How Computer Chips are Made**• **Operating System Processes**• **Operating System Boot**• **Digital Logic Semiconductor Families**• **Real-Time CPU Scheduling**• **Operating System Memory Management**• **Digital Logic Levels and Transfer Characteristics**• **The Microcontroller Interrupt System**• **Processor Affinity in Symmetric Multiprocessing**• **Binary Floating-Point Numbers