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Computer Anatomy

How Does the CPU Cache Work?
CPU's however use a 2 level cache system. The principles are the same. The level 1 cache is the fastest and smallest memory, level 2 cache is larger and slightly slower but still smaller and faster than the main memory. More ...

1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G Cellular Wireless Standards
The meaning of the terms 3G and 4G have been made very confusing because some wireless carriers have built new high-speed 4G networks from the ground up while other wireless carriers have chosen to doctor-up their 3G service and market it as 4G. More ...

Motherboard Basics
A motherboard, also known as a main board, is the primary circuit board inside of a computer, and is where the central processing unit (CPU), memory, expansion slots, drives, and other peripheral devices are connected. More ...

The RS-232 Serial Port
The RS-232 serial port was used to connect a mouse, modem, and/or printer. The RS-232 serial port is now totally obsolete. I would be very surprised if you ever run into a PC with an RS-232 serial port except possibly in a third-world country. However, I'll briefly describe the it in this article because you may run into a question about it in the CompTIA A+ Certification Exam. More ...

PC Sound Circuitry
Actual physical sound is an analog phenomenon while the computer is digital. To output a sound stored on a computer disk to a speaker the sound circuit uses a digital-to-analog converter. Sound input to the computer for recording uses an analog-to-digital converter. So PC sound circuitry is primarily an AD/DA-converter or a "coder/decoder", usually shortened to "codec". More ...

Basic Computer Thermodynamics
Picture the CPU of a computer cooking away because the designer wants to push too much power through a small piece of silicon. If we don't take away that heat as fast as it's created, that CPU will fry! More ...

Power and Your PC
The power coming into a computer is the most critical component, and it may be one of the most overlooked. It is just taken for granted that it will always be there and working properly. More ...

VIA Chipsets
Via was founded in 1997. Via introduced the VP1 chipset to compete with Intel's 430 series. The VP1 offered support for EDO, BEDO and SDRAM as well as UltraDMA ahead of Intel. Today Via is one of the worlds largest chipset manufacturers. More ...

Hard Disc Fundamentals
This article describes the main technical fundamentals of Hard Disc Drive and its operation. I focus my attraction on the particular perspective of describing Physical and Logical view of HDD. This article also brings out the technology wise company working on this hard disc drives and this related technology. More ...

Hardware Resources Explained
Hardware devices, such as modems, network circuits, sound circuits, and so on, require system resources such as Interrupt Request (IRQ) lines, Input/Output Port (I/O) addresses, Direct Memory Access Channels (DMA), and a range of Memory Addresses for storing code and data. Each device needs its own set of resources. If two devices attempt to use the same resource, your system may lock up or crash. More ...

Buffered, Unbuffered, Registered Memory, What is the Difference?
Buffered and Registered memory are the same thing. The buffer is a register that resides between the system's memory controller and the RAM. The buffer is often, but not always, used to provide ECC (Error Checking and Correction). More ...

Understanding Your PC's CPU Clock Speed and Front Side Bus
The CPU or Central Processing Unit is the brains of any computer and the two major manufacturers are Intel and AMD or Advanced Micro Devices. For many years Intel CPUs were found in nearly all PCs. And now the Intel is found in most systems but the newer Athlon class CPU from AMD have taken a large chunk of the CPU market. More ...