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Major Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite

This is a chart of the layers of the TCP/IP Suite and the major protocols in each layer. This is not a comprehensive list.

Application Layer
FTP
File Transfer Protocol is for transfering and manipulating files.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is for sending messages to a mail server for relaying.
POP3
Post Office Protocol version 3 is for retrieving e-mail from a remote server.
Telnet
Telecommunication Network Protocol is for creating a command-line interface on a remote machine.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol is used for network management systems.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol automates the assignment of IP addresses, subnet masks, default gateway, and other IP parameters.
DNS
Domain Name System translates human meaningful domain names to IP addresses.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol is for a user agent such a web browser to retrieve a hypertext document from a server.
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol is for retrieving e-mail from a remote server.
Transport Layer
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol works with IP to send a large chunk of data across the Internet by breaking the data into pieces called packets. TCP requests retransmission of lost packets, and reassembles out-of-order packets before it passes that datagram to the application program.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol works with IP to send a large chunk of data across the Internet by breaking the data into pieces called packets. Unlike TCP, UDP does not check for lost lost packets or reassembles out-of-order packets. UDP provides an unreliable transmission service for time-sensitive applications.
Internet Layer
IP
Internet Protocol delivers packets from the source host to the destination host based on their addresses. Forwarding decisions across IP connected networks is typically performed by routers. IP does not check for lost lost packets and so is used with TCP to achieve reliability.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol is used to generate messages in response to errors for instance that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.
Link Layer
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol is for finding a host's hardware address when only its IP address is known. It's primarily used to translate IP addresses to Ethernet MAC addresses.
RARP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol is for finding a host's IP address when only it's MAC address (hardware address) address is known. RARP requires an administrator to maintain a database a database of mappings from IP addresses to MAC addresses on a server.
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol where each OSPF router collects link state information to construct the entire network topology from which it computes the shortest path for each route.
MAC
Media Access Control is the physical address, a unique serial number assigned to each network adapter.

More Networking Protocols and Standards:
• TCP Windowing
• X.25 and Frame Relay Overview
• IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
• The OSI Data Link Layer
• Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast. What Does It Mean?
• Classless IP Addressing
• Understanding IP Routing
• TCP/IP Features
• TCP/IP Utilities
• The OSI Network Layer

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