Virtually all modern operating systems provide features enabling a process to contain multiple threads of control.
Figure 4.1 Single-threaded and multithreaded processes.
A thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization; it comprises a thread ID, a program counter, a register set, and a stack. It shares with other threads belonging to the same process its code section, data section, and other operating system resources, such as open files and signals. A traditional (or lightweight) process has a single thread of control. If a process has multiple threads of control, it can perform more than one task at a time. Figure 4.1 illustrates the difference between a traditional single-threaded process and a multithreaded process.
Most software applications that run on modern computers are multithreaded. An application typically is implemented as a separate process with several threads of control. A web browser might have one thread display images or text while another thread retrieves data from the network, for example. A word processor may have a thread for displaying graphics, another thread for responding to keystrokes from the user, and a third thread for performing spelling and grammar checking in the background. Applications can also be designed to leverage processing capabilities on multicore systems. Such applications can perform several CPU-intensive tasks in parallel across the multiple computing cores.
Figure 4.2 Multithreaded architecture.
One solution is to have the server run as a single process that accepts requests. When the server receives a request, it creates a separate process to service that request. In fact, process-creation method was in common use before threads became popular. Process creation is time consuming and resource intensive, however. if the new process will perform the same tasks as the existing process, why incur all that overhead? It is generally more efficient to use one process that contains multiple threads. If the web server process is multithreaded, the server will create a separate thread that listens for client requests. When a request is made, rather than creating another process, the server creates a new thread to service the request and resumes listening for additional requests. This is illustrated in Figure 4.2.
Threads also play a vital role in remote procedure call (RPC) systems. RPCs allow interprocess communication by providing a communication mechanism similar to ordinary function or procedure calls. Typically, RPC servers are multithreaded. When a server receives a message, it services the message using a separate thread. This allows the server to service several concurrent requests.
Finally, most operating system kernels are now multithreaded. Several threads operate in the kernel, and each thread performs a specific task, such as managing devices, managing memory, or interrupt handling. For example Solaris has a set of threads in the kernel specifically for interrupt handling; Linux uses a kernel thread for managing the amount of free memory in the system.
About the Authors
Abraham Silberschatz is the Sidney J. Weinberg Professor of Computer Science at Yale University. Prior to joining Yale, he was the Vice President of the Information Sciences Research Center at Bell Laboratories. Prior to that, he held a chaired professorship in the Department of Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin.
Professor Silberschatz is a Fellow of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), a Fellow of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and a member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering.
Greg Gagne is chair of the Computer Science department at Westminster College in Salt Lake City where he has been teaching since 1990. In addition to teaching operating systems, he also teaches computer networks, parallel programming, and software engineering.
Operating System Concepts, now in its ninth edition, continues to provide a solid theoretical foundation for understanding operating systems. The ninth edition has been thoroughly updated to include contemporary examples of how operating systems function. The text includes content to bridge the gap between concepts and actual implementations. End-of-chapter problems, exercises, review questions, and programming exercises help to further reinforce important concepts. A new Virtual Machine provides interactive exercises to help engage students with the material.
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