Integrated Circuit Design Flow
By Ndubuisi Ekekwe
After the circuits are completed, the individual
chips are cut from the die. This is called "dicing".
The process of chip design is very complex and its understanding requires many years of study
and practical experience. From a digital integrated circuit design perspective, it could be divided
into different hierarchies or stages where the problems are examined at several different levels:
system design, logic design, circuit design, layout design, fabrication and testing. These steps
are not necessarily sequential; interactions are done in practice to get things right.
This stage provides the specifications and main operations of the chip. It examines such issues
like chip area, power, functionality, speed, cost and other design factors while setting these
specifications. Sometimes, the resources available to the designer could act as a constraint during
this stage. For instance, a designer may like to design a chip to work at 1.2V, but available
process technology can only support a voltage of 5V. In this situation, the designer has to adjust
these specifications to satisfy the available tools.
It is always a good habit to understand the process technology available before system design
and specifications. Process technology is basically the specific foundry technology rules where
the chip would be fabricated. Typical examples are AMI 0.5um, TSMC 0.35um and IBM 0.13um. A
design based on one process technology is unique to that process and accordingly should be
fabricated in a foundry that supports that process.
At the system design level, the main sections of the system are illustrated with block diagrams,
with no details on the contents of the blocks. Only the input and output characteristics of the
sections are detailed.
At this stage, the designer implements the logic networks that would realize
the input and output characteristics specified in the previous stage. This is generally made
of logic gates with interconnecting wires that are used to realize the design.
Circuit design involves the translation of the various logic networks into electronic
circuitries using transistors. These transistors are switching devices whose combinations are
used to realize different logic functions. The design is tested using computer aided design
(CAD) tools and comparisons are made between the results and the chip specifications. Throug
these results, the designer could have an idea of the speed, power dissipation, and performance
of the final chip.
An idea of the size of the chip is also obtained at this stage since the number of transistors
would determine the area of the chip. Experienced designers optimize many design variables like
transistor sizes, transistor numbers, and circuit architecture to reduce delay, power consumption,
and latency among others. The length and width of the transistors must obey the rules of the
This stage involves the translation of the circuit realized in the previous
stage into silicon description through geometrical patterns aided by CAD tools. This translation
process follows a process rule that specifies the spacing between transistors, wire, wire contacts,
and so on. Violation of these rules results to malfunctioning chips after fabrication. Besides,
the designer must ensure that the layout design accurately represents the circuit design and
that the design is free of errors.
CAD tools enable checks for errors and also incorporate ways of comparing layout and circuit
designs provided in form of Layout Versus Schematic (LVS) checks. When errors are reported, the
designer has to effect the corrections.
A vital fundamental stage in layout design is Extraction, which involves the extraction of
the circuit schematic from the layout drawings. The extracted circuit provides information on
the circuit elements, wires, parasitic resistance and capacitance (a parasitic device is an
unbudgeted device that inserts itself due to interaction between nearby components). With the
aid of this extracted file, the electronic behavior of the silicon circuit is simulated and it
is always a good habit to compare the results with the system specification since this is one
of the final design stages before a chip is sent to the foundry.